System Center 2012 RC–Install experience continued

Yesterday I began the process of evaluation System Center 2012 RC and gave up. Today I decided I was going to try anyway.
As I mentioned before, you need a grand total of 8 machines. I created 8 nearly identical domain joined VMs (in Vmware ESXi of course) – each with 2 CPUs and 4 gigs of ram (thank goodness for Vmware’s memory sharing) and a minimum of 40gigs of disk.
Note: if you attempt to install any of this on an existing server, or an OS instance with stuff on it already it will most certainly fail.

 

Server Preparation – All Servers

Each server is Windows Server 2008 R2 with all the latest updates, IE9; I installed .NET Framework 3.5.1, and .NET Framework 4.0. I generally disable IPv6.
Even though it is not the most secure thing in the world, you might as well just disable the firewall on all of them as well. The documentation is missing the required firewall settings for the target servers (not disabling said firewalls will cause the Unified Installer to be unable to connect)

 

Here are the eight lovely virtual machines all running at once. You will need some serious hardware for this to approach usable – our VM server has two quad core 3ghz Xeons and 32-gigs of ram – so it manages…

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Continue reading “System Center 2012 RC–Install experience continued”

Trying out System Center 2012 RC… or not

I have evaluated several versions of System Center Essentials over the years, and after getting past the initial “ooh, shiny MMCs” reaction (the the terrible installation experience), I generally have found them to be lackluster.

 

System Center 2012 comes around and even makes the news: Microsoft is of course “all-in” to the cloud, so SC2012 is hyped to help create and manage your “Private Cloud”. Additionally, Microsoft has streamlined the licensing process so that instead of Several different products (Configuration Manager, Operations Manager, Data Protection Manager, Virtual Machine Manager, Service Manager) there is just one product (well… two, but they only differ in virtualization instance counts) including all the technologies, and the price is fairly reasonable. The product now contains the following components:

  1. App Controller – (new) “Cloud”-style application management (App-V, server configuration templates), application performance monitoring (J2EE & .NET – Visual Studio Integration)
  2. Configuration Manager – Software deployment, update management, configuration compliance / enforcement, administration
  3. Data Protection Manager – Backup (server, workstation, bare metal)
  4. Endpoint Protection – Anti-Malware, firewall configuration
  5. Operations Manager – Performance / availability monitoring
  6. Orchestrator – (formerly Opalis) Data Center workflow management (?)
  7. Service Manager – Helpdesk, trouble tickets, process compliance
  8. Virtual Machine Manager – Self explanatory

I realize I’m probably demonstrating my naïveté here, but there does seem to be some overlap – Configuration Manager, Orchestrator and Service Manager all list process / configuration automation in the feature list. Considering these used to be separate SKUs I understand why this might be, but it makes for a very unpolished appearing product. If I want to deploy an application to users machines, do I use the “App Controller”? Or Configuration Manager”? Or do I  “Orchestrate” it?

Sounds like the answer is “sure.”

 

Getting Started

The download for System Center 2012 is available here: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/evalcenter/hh505660.aspx?ocidotc-f-corp-jtc-DPR&wt.mc_id;TEC_103_1_33

Out the gate, things are not looking good. Despite touting the new “System Center 2012 Unified Installer,” the download includes 8 files of various names and extensions, none of which are instructions.
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Also of note: the creepy total size: 6.66 GB…

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There should be some documentation hidden here: Microsoft Private Cloud Evaluation Resources

So I have my VM ready to go, but no idea how to proceed. Checking the Unified Installer user guide – which is really poorly written – I discover than you need a separate server for each component, except for Service Manager, which requires two. So I hope you have a powerful virtualization server… or a bunch of extra workstations lying around, because that is a whopping 8 servers to perform a complete install.

That’s right – System Center 2012 requires it’s own private cloud just to run. (Our data center only has about 8 servers to be managed!) That is 8 windows licenses. That might even be enough to cause a TechNet static activation key to stop working. One could virtualize, but the Standard license only allows you to manage two virtual machines… this thing isn’t even licensed to manage itself.

 

 

Conclusion

At this point, even after spending the time setting up VMs for it, I am tempted to scrap the whole thing. Too many servers, too many manual steps, poor documentation, and a high likelihood of fatal-non-resumable-installer-errors-after-hours-of-non-reversible-changes (see SCE 2010) all sums up to a poor allocation of resources.

I can do 90% of what System Center 2012 does with Group Policy (free with Windows Server), WSUS (free), Microsoft Security Essentials (Free) and Zabbix or Quest FogLight (free or free to a point).

 

 

Update – To Be Continued…

Three more virtual machines later, and I have all the necessary servers. I went through with the installation successfully and will post the steps soon.

Sysprep Windows Server 2008 R2 and use Windows Server Backup

Windows Server 2008 R2 comes with sysprep pre-installed – it is at c:\windows\system32\sysprep\sysprep.exe – best to run it from an elevated command line.

If you are looking to create a sysprepped image using the built in Windows Server Backup, you will be sorely disappointed – WSB does not run after running sysprep (if you choose the Exit option) – in fact very little will run.

The workaround is simple but non-intuitive (backup first; sysprep second):
1: Run the backup first.
2: Load the backup on a different machine (or virtual machine).
3: On first boot, ensure the network is disconnected!!
4. Run sysprep (be sure to select generalize) and have it reboot.
5. Repeat as needed.

Uninstalling Windows 8 when using UEFI

So you went ahead and dual booted the Windows 8 Developer Preview with your Windows 7 machine, but decided you don’t want it anymore. There are lots of instructions online for how to remove it when you are using a standard boot, but if you are using UEFI your life is much simpler. (I’m not going into detail since if you figured out how to dual boot, you probably can handle a partition or two)

Using Disk Management, delete the volume for your windows 8 installation. Optionally, expand the volume for your Windows 7 install to get the space back.

If you want to speed up the boot process a bit, Open the Advanced System Settings (rt click Computer, Properties, Advanced System Settings), click Settings… under Startup and recovery, and make sure the check box next to “Time to display list of operating systems” is unchecked, (and that Windows 7 is the default operating system).

 

All done! No need to edit the BCD when using EFI boot, it appears that windows automatically removes the windows 8 entry when you delete the partition. (I ran bcdedit just to check)

Using dsamain to browse disconnected ntds.dit

If you want to peek into the past contents of your Active Directory, you used to have to perform a complete server restore. (By used to, I mean server 2003)

Server 2008 has a tool that allows you to mount the ntds.dit file from your backup as an LDAP server, which can then be browsed using ADSI Edit. Once you get it to work, it is much quicker than a full backup if you are able to extract just the database files. The first step is to install the AD DS role on a member server – I would not recommend doing this on a domain controller proper. This will get you the tools you need to proceed.

As usual, I am posting this because the internet demonstrated epic fail when it came to debugging the process.
When I first attempted to use dsamain.exe on the ntds.dit file, I received the following errors:

dsamain /dbpath ntds.dit /ldapport 1492
EVENTLOG (Error): NTDS General / Internal Processing : 1168
Internal error: An Active Directory Domain Services error has occurred.
Error value (decimal): -550
Error value (hex): fffffdda
Internal ID: 40878
EVENTLOG (Error): NTDS General / Internal Processing : 1003
Active Directory Domain Services could not be initialized.
The directory service cannot recover from this error.

Because my AD database copy was taken in a “naughty” manner, the solution to this issue is to use the esentutl utility to recover the database (apply the log files) then repair the database.
I had a heck of a time with esentutl not working at first – it complained about missing references and such. The solution:
1. Make sure you have the database file AND the log files. Sometimes these are placed on separate volumes
2. the ESENTUTL recovery command takes a 3-character logfile prefix as the parameter, NOT the database file name
3. The utility determines the database file path from the logfiles. You need to place all the files from your original Domain Controller into the same folder on your member server (eg: C:\windows\NTDS). If esentutl complains, you may need to check your paths.
4. Open an elevated command prompt, change the folder containing your files, and run “esentutl /r edb” It should just work

Next, check the integrity of the database. It will probably find some errors
“esentutl /g ntds.dit”

Finally, run a repair on the database, and be sure to click “Yes” (or OK) on the prompt
“esentutl /p ntds.dit”

Now you can use dsamain to try mounting the database:
“dsamain /dbpath ntds.dit /ldapport 1492”

If you are like me, you will get an error along the lines of 1809 JET_errPermissionDenied, Permission denied
(meta note: the phrase “JET_errPermissionDenied” was painfully absent from any meaningful pages in the internet before now.)

The solution to this error: use the allowupgrade option when running dsamain. (I’m guessing this is happening because the member server is not running the same exact version of AD DS as the Domain Controller).

Using this command:
“dsamain /dbpath ntds.dit /ldapport 1492 /allownonadminaccess /allowupgrade”

It updated the database, and mounted the sucker. (I do receive an error about exclusive access to a port – haven’t resolved it, but as long as your LDAP port is ok, you should be fine)

Now run ADSI Edit, connect to localhost:1492 (or your port of choice) select your desired naming context, and enjoy the time travelling experience!

Group policy application errors

I recently encountered a server that was having problems applying group policy. I encountered the following errors:

Log: Application
Source: Group Policy Registry
Event ID: 8194
Message:The client-side extension could not remove user policy settings for 'GPONAME {n-n-n-n-n}' because it failed with error code '0x8007000d The data is invalid.' See trace file for more details.
Log: System
Source: GroupPolicy
Event ID: 1085
Message: Windows failed to apply the Group Policy Registry settings. Group Policy Registry settings might have its own log file. Please click on the "More information" link.

 

The More info link is useless -don’t waste your time. Also, it would appear there is no trace file. Searching for these errors on Google will get you suggestions about deleting GPOs on the Domain controller, but the thing is, I need this GPO.

To diagnose this issue, you will first need to enable Group Policy tracing. On the machine having the problems, open up the local group policy editor (run gpedit.msc) and browse to:

Computer Policy \ Administrative Templates \ System \ Group Policy \ Logging and tracing

This contains a list of all the Group Policy Modules / extensions. Select the one that matches the error message in the system event log. (In my case, it was Registry Policy Processing)
enable the policy, change Tracing to “On” and click Ok.

Now open an elevated (Run as Administrator) command prompt, and type gpupdate. This should get the errors to throw again, but this time it will write out a trace file.

You should be able to find that trace file in C:\ProgramData\GroupPolicy\Preference\Trace\User.log. Open it up and look for a line containing “The data is Invalid”. You should see something like the following:

GPH data file : C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Group Policy\History\{...-...-...-...-...}\S-1-5-21-...-...-...-...\Preferences\Registry\Registry.xml
Completed parse of GPH XML. [ hr = 0x8007000d "The data is invalid." ]
Completed remove GPH. [ hr = 0x8007000d "The data is invalid." ]
Leaving ProcessGroupPolicyExRegistry() returned 0x8007000d

The filename after GPH data file is the corrupt file. Most likely is is an empty XML File. I just renamed the folder C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Group Policy\History\{guid}\{sid} to be {sid}.bak.

(Note: you may need to change your folder options to be able to access the file)

Now run gpupdate again, and it should recreate the history file with the correct contents. Problem solved!

Finally, remember to disable the tracing.